Transepithelial corneal crosslinking in treatment of progressive keratoconus: 12 months’ clinical results

Bushra Akbar, Rana Intisar Ul Haq, Mazhar Ishaq, Sabahat Arzoo, Kashif Siddique


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transepithelial corneal collagen cross linking (TE-CXL) with modified riboflavin and accelerated UVA irradiance in thin corneas with pachymetry less than 400 microns at thinnest point, untreatable by epithelium off corneal collagen cross linking(CXL) in adult Pakistani population with progressive keratoconus.

Methods: This quasi experimental study included twenty six eyes of 26 patients with progressive keratoconus who underwent accelerated transepithelial CXL in Armed forced institute of ophthalmology with 12 months follow up. Modified riboflavin, ParaCel ((riboflavin 0.25%, Benzalkonium chloride, EDTA, Trometamol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and vibeX Xtra (riboflavin 0.25%) (Avedro, USA)) were applied to cornea in two stages. Uncorrected and Corrected Distant Visual Acuities (UDVA, CDVA), spherical equivalent (SE), astigmatism, pachymetry at thinnest point (Pachy thin), apex keratometry (Kmax), simulated and steep keratometry (Sim K, steep K) were measured at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months post operatively. The cornea was then exposed to accelerated UVA irradiance of 9mW/cm2 for 10 min (total dose 30 mW/cm2).

Results: The mean age of the patient was 24.54±5.16 years. UDVA, CDVA, SE, astigmatism significantly improved at all postoperative test points (p=0.000, 0.004, 0.000, 0.004 respectively). Kmax and pachy thin were significantly reduced over baseline at 1 year (p=0.000, 0.004 respectively). Topographic indices Sim K and steep K did not show significant changes. No intra or post-operative complications were reported.

Conclusion: Transepithelial accelerated CXL with modified riboflavin is a safe and effective procedure which halt disease progression in thin corneas with progressive keratoconus.


How to cite this:Akbar B, Intisar-ul-Haq R, Ishaq M, Arzoo S, Siddique K. Transepithelial corneal crosslinking in treatment of progressive keratoconus: 12 months’ clinical results. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(3):570-575.   doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.
sejuta manfaat artikel unik sejarah kerajaan