Intra-Operative Predictors of difficult cholecystectomy and Conversion to Open Cholecystectomy – A New Scoring System

Nauman Ahmed, Maaz ul Hassan, Maham Tahira, Abdul Samad, Hamad Naeem Rana


Objective: To evaluate the intra-operative scoring system to predict difficult cholecystectomy and conversion to open surgery.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted from March 2016 to August, 2016 in the Department of Surgery, Shalimar Hospital. The study recruited 120 patients of either gender, age greater than 18 years and indicated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Intra-operatively all patients were evaluated using the new scoring system. The scoring system included five aspects; appearance and adhesion of Gall Bladder (GB), distension or contracture degree of GB, ease in access, local or septic complications, and time required for cystic artery and duct identification. The scoring system ranges from 0 to 10, classified as score of <2 being considered easy, 2 to 4 moderate, 5–7 very difficult, and 8 to 10, extreme. Patient demographic data (i.e. age, gender), co-morbidities, intra-operative scores using the scoring system and conversion to open were recorded. The data was analysed using statistical analysis software SPSS (IBM).

Results: Among one hundred and twenty participants, sixty seven percent were females and the mean age (years) was 43.05 ± 14.16. Co-morbidities were present in twenty percent patients with eleven diagnosed with diabetes, six with hypertension and five with both hypertension and diabetes. The conversion rate to open surgery was 6.7%. The overall mean intra-operative scores were 3.52 ± 2.23; however significant difference was seen in mean operative score of converted to open and those not converted to open (8.00 ± 0.92 Vs. 3.20 V 1.92; p-value = 0.001). Among eight cases converted to open, three (37.5%) were  in very difficult category while five (62.5%) were in extreme category. Moreover, age greater than 40 years and being diabetic were also the risk factors for conversion to open surgery.

Conclusion: The new intra-operative scoring system is a valuable assessment tool to predict difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion parameters to open surgery and its utility could improve patient’s clinical outcome indicated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 


How to cite this:Ahmed N, Maaz ul Hassan, Tahira M, Samad A, Rana HN. Intra-Operative Predictors of difficult cholecystectomy and Conversion to Open Cholecystectomy – A New Scoring System. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(1):62-66.   doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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