Regular breakfast consumption associated withhigh intelligence quotient: Myth or Reality? | Hisam | Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Old Website

Regular breakfast consumption associated withhigh intelligence quotient: Myth or Reality?

Aliya Hisam, Mahmood Ur Rahman, Syed Fawad Mashhadi, Azfar Bilal, Tayyeba Anam


Objective: To find the frequency of regular breakfast consumption among Pakistani teenagers while the other objective was to  find out the association between breakfast consumers (BC) and intelligence quotient (IQ).

Methods: This comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 102 students of a Public School Rawalpindi from August 2013 to January 2014. Participants were categorised into two groups i.e. regular breakfast consumers (RBC) and irregular breakfast consumers (IBC) according to their breakfast habits. A standardized questionnaire of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Childrenwas used for IQ assessment. Data was then entered and analysed in SPSS version 20.

Result: Out of the 102 individuals with mean age 17.17 ± 0.631, 58(56.9%) were females and 44 (43.1%) were males. There were 63 (61.8%) RBC while 39 (38.2%) were IBC. Among RBC there were 7 (6.9%) in challenged, 5 (4.9%) were below average, 33 (32.4%) in average group, 14(13.7%) in above average and 4 (3.9%) in gifted group. While among IBC, there was 1 (1%) among the severely challenged, 3 (2.9%) in challenged, 8 (7.8%) in below average, 22 (21.6%) in average group, 4 (3.9%) in above average and 1 (1%) in gifted group. There was no significant association found between breakfast intake and IQ level among students (p=0.98).

Conclusion: More than half of the students were having regular breakfast. There was no significant association found among breakfast consumers and IQ. However the IQ score was more among RBC as compared to IBC.


How to cite this:Hisam A, Mahmood Ur Rahman, Mashhadi SF, Bilal A, Anam T. Regular breakfast consumption associated with high intelligence quotient: Myth or Reality? Pak J Med Sci 2015;31(5):1084-1088.   doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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